Movie 2

Impaired arm coordination following the topical anesthesia of all the arms. This subject (O. incrassata) underwent anesthesia of the midsegments of its five arms by L-menthol. The anesthesia spared the spontaneous arm movements. However, the subjects was unable to initiate coordinated arm movements for either rowing or reverse rowing movements.

Non-centralized and functionally localized nervous system of ophiuroids: evidence from topical anesthetic experiments

Yoshiya Matsuzaka, Eiki Sato, Takeshi Kano, Hitoshi Aonuma, and Akio Ishiguro

Biology Open 2017. 6:425-438; doi: 10.1242/bio.019836