Movie 7

Stage 3 organoids contain inner and outer nuclear layers with appropriate cell types. 3D reconstruction of a confocal z stack of a thick section from a stage 3 retinal organoid showing expression of cone ARR3 (red), ROD OPSIN (yellow) and VSX2 (bipolar cells; green) relative to nuclei (blue). Note the presence of pedicles associated with the ARR3+ cone axons vs. spherules associated with the ROD OPSIN+ rod axons present within the ONL of this organoid.

Reproducibility and staging of 3D human retinal organoids across multiple pluripotent stem cell lines

Elizabeth E. Capowski, Kayvan Samimi, Steven J. Mayerl, M. Joseph Phillips, Isabel Pinilla, Sara E. Howden, Jishnu Saha, Alex D. Jansen, Kimberly L. Edwards, Lindsey D. Jager, Katherine Barlow, Rasa Valiauga, Zachary Erlichman, Anna Hagstrom, Divya Sinha, Valentin M. Sluch, Xitiz Chamling, Donald J. Zack, Melissa C. Skala, and David M. Gamm

Development 2019. 146:None-None; doi: 10.1242/dev.171686