Movie 2

Galvanotaxis of astrocytes. In contrast to fNPCs, astrocytes differentiated from fNPCs migrated toward the anode in the presence of a 1 V cm-1 EF.

Electrophoresis of cell membrane heparan sulfate regulates galvanotaxis in glial cells

Yu-Ja Huang, Paula Schiapparelli, Kristen Kozielski, Jordan Green, Emily Lavell, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, and Peter Searson

J Cell Sci 2017. 130:2459-2467; doi: 10.1242/jcs.203752