Movie 1

High-speed video of an electric catfish during its high-voltage defensive discharge and of a control goldfish that receives the same discharge. Note fast spreading of the pectoral fins and contraction of the body in the goldfish and absence of similar effects in the electric catfish. Yellow warning signs and red bars indicate timing of the high-voltage discharges. Videos were filmed from below and are slowed down by a factor of one-fortieth of the original speed.

Journal of Experimental Biology ; doi: 10.1242/jeb.239855