Movie 1

Example of an obtained sequence and wing motion. Sequence ID 4 (see Table S2). This sequence contains wingbeat IDs 4 (t= 0.6500 to 1.1667) and 5 (t= 1.3500 to 1.9000). The left panel shows the actual camera view (camera 4, see Fig. 1A) and the trajectories of each marker. The right panel shows wing motion relative to the body, viewed from the front of the penguin. The x mark represents the centre of body.

Kinematics and hydrodynamics analyses of swimming penguins: wing bending improves propulsion performance

Natsuki Harada, Takuma Oura, Masateru Maeda, Yayi Shen, Dale M. Kikuchi, and Hiroto Tanaka

Journal of Experimental Biology 2021. 224:None-None; doi: 10.1242/jeb.242140