Movie 1.

First segment: A swarm reconstruction device within a temperature controlled box. A swarm is hung from a board which is suspended by a scale. Three space heaters an two window air conditioners are installed in the corners of the box. A camera and a backlight are rotated around the swarm cluster in order to construct 3D axisymetric models of the cluster's shape every 4 minutes while the ambient temperature is systematically varied. The backlight is switched off when not in use to avoid attracting bees away from the cluster. Second segment: Images recorded from 40 camera angles as as the camera and backlight rotate around the swarm cluster. Computer vision tools are used to extract a silhouette of the cluster at each angle which is later used to estimate the cluster's 3D shape.

Thermoregulatory morphodynamics of honeybee swarm clusters

Jacob M. Peters, Orit Peleg, and L. Mahadevan

Journal of Experimental Biology 2022. 225:None-None; doi: 10.1242/jeb.242234