Movie 1.

Force vectors of a galloping horse from Self Davies et al., 2019. Measured forces (blue) are closer to vertical than in-line with the legs; they do not project through hips and shoulders (red: empirical vertical forces re-aligned through approximate shoulder and joint centres). Measured forces require 40–50% of the horizontal work that would be required from limb-axial forces.

Journal of Experimental Biology ; doi: 10.1242/jeb.243254