Movie 1.

Video footage from a testing session. As seen in the video, a raccoon is eating dog kibble (i.e., the food reward) inside of the testing device and then moves outside of the device to investigate his surroundings. He then moves back inside of the device and pushes on the button to his left, which is the incorrect choice. In response, a low-pitched sound is played as the lights in both LED buttons shut off and the device becomes unresponsive for two seconds. After the two second time-out period has passed, the raccoon makes the correct selection by pushing on the button to his right side and a small amount of dog kibble is released.

Environmental, individual and social traits of free-ranging raccoons influence performance in cognitive testing

Lauren A. Stanton, Eli S. Bridge, Joost Huizinga, and Sarah Benson-Amram

Journal of Experimental Biology 2022. 225:None-None; doi: 10.1242/jeb.243726