Planarians display muscle-driven locomotion at 4V. Planarians move randomly in troughs when no voltage is applied but show directed movement using muscle-driven locomotion towards the cathode when 2V is applied. Timestamp is in seconds and the white bar represents the location of the cathode. Movie is sped up 4x.
Ziad Sabry, Rui Wang, Aryo Jahromi, Christina Rabeler, William B. Kristan, and Eva-Maria S. Collins
Journal of Experimental Biology
2022. 225:None-None; doi: 10.1242/jeb.243972