Movie 2

XROMM animation of P. motoro feeding. Left, right lateral view; right, rostroventral view. Two beads in the prey item allowed us to reconstruct prey position and orientation (green solid). Angular cartilages (red cylinders) were animated based on the motion of proximal and distal attachment sites on the hyomandibula and Meckel’s cartilage, respectively.

Shearing overbite and asymmetrical jaw motions facilitate food breakdown in a freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro

J. D. Laurence-Chasen, Jason B. Ramsay, and Elizabeth L. Brainerd

Journal of Experimental Biology 2019. 222:None-None; doi: 10.1242/jeb.197681